Voluntary work has always been present, especially among the religious organisations, giving food or money was common. NGOs in its traditional form have been working in different religious trust-based schools, hospitals and orphanages. In India NGOs became known in s but voluntary work started after the independent from the British in In independent India, voluntary organizations started by Gandhi and his disciples were to fill in the gaps left by the government in the development process.
In the s, however, the groups who were now known as NGOs became more specialized, and the voluntary movement was fragmented into different groups.
NGOs in Mauritius started with voluntary works for the welfare of society. In the past, such type of social works started with the bourgeoisie class, the young girls from the upper class where were doing charity work to help the poor like giving them food and sometimes educating them. Much of the charity work and voluntary work which are done now were performed in the past by religious organisations. They worked dependently from the government even if the government were allocating them money.
NGOs are present where the government or other organisations have failed to cater for those in need.
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There are a large number of religious organisations that are considered to form part of NGOs according to Macoss. The Mauritius Council of Social Service was founded in November and it was incorporated, under Act 55 of , voted in Parliament, providing the legal framework of the Council.
It helps its members by initiating communication, collaboration and networking among NGOs and between NGOs, Government and private sector, primarily through meetings, workshops, consultation and institutional development activities. Macoss plays a leadership role in good governance, policy, advocacy, capacity building and innovation for a vibrant, efficient and effective Non Government Organisation sector and Civil Society Organisation.
Poverty is like a vicious circle. Poverty causes poverty. Just as the rich people get richer as they are already rich and the poor get poorer because they live in poverty. Poverty has many causes and some of them are very basic. Some experts suggest that poverty is caused due few employment or lack of food. The basic factors that may lead to poverty are: inadequate education and employment opportunities overpopulation, inability to meet standard of living and cost of living, certain economic and demographic trends, the unequal distribution of resources in the global economy, welfare incentives and environmental degradation.
Overpopulation is the situation where large numbers of people have too few resources and too little space, and this is closely associated with poor people. This overpopulation can result from high population density, which is the number of people to land suface, usually showed as numbers of people per square kilometre or square mile, or there are low amounts of resources, or from both. Very high population densities put stress on resources that are available.
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Only a certain amount of people can be supported on a given surface of land, and that number depends on how much food and other resources the area can provide. In countries where people live by primary means of basic farming, gardening, herding, hunting, and gathering, even where there are larger land surfaces the production of food is still low given the number of people are small is due to the production means. The production means is not intense enough to produce large amount of food to feed large amount of people. People in developed countries generally enjoy a higher standard of living because these nations may have more in terms of resource and wealth than those in developing countries.
People who may have adequate resources and wealth in a developing country maybe be considered as poor in a developed country. They may also expect to rent a house or an apartment with electricity facilities and water supply, to able to buy food to eat and clothes, and get health care provision. In addition, many of these people hope to afford other expenses, such as, the purchases material not need for survival, such as cars, entertainment and high priced food.
In comparison, people in most developing countries usually may consider themselves to be well off if they have productive agriculture, some cattle, and a house made out of mud-bricks. In the rural areas, people can be used to not having water facilities, electricity, or adequate health facilities. Developed countries tend to have a high cost of living, even the most basic lifestyle with few or no luxuries; can be relatively expensive as compared to developing countries.
Most people in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, western European nations, and other developed countries cannot obtain adequate food, clothing, and shelter without ample amounts of money. In some areas, even people with jobs that pay the legal minimum wage may not be able to cover their basic expenses. People who cannot find well-paying jobs often have no spare income for emergency expenses, and many rely on state welfare to survive. In Mauritius about , citizens or 8.
These figures reveal that the number of Mauritians living under the poverty line is increasing. From 8. The minimum wage for an adult living in a poor family is estimated at Rs 3, monthly. In Rodrigues, the rate of poverty is higher.
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It is estimated at Illiteracy and lack of education are very frequent in developing countries. Very often the state of developing countries cannot afford to cater for good educational facilities to the people, especially those living in rural areas. Whereas in industrialized countries nearly all children have access to at least the basic education, in sub-Saharan Africa only about 60 per cent children go to elementary school. Without education, most people in the developing countries are unable to find income-generating work.
Poor people are also often propelled schooling so as to concentrate on earning a minimal living. In addition, developing countries tend to have fewer employment opportunities as compared to developed countries, especially for women.
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Resulting in the fact that, schooling is perceived as being crucial to people. Even in developed nations, unemployment rates may be high. When people do not work, they cannot earn a living; thus, high rate of poverty is a result of high unemployment. The amount of employment that is available also tends to fluctuate; creating high unemployment periods. If the unemployment level in countries with high population increases with only a few points, this leads to millions of people who are able to work and earn a living.
Because unemployment figures indicate only the number of people eligible to work who have no job but are seeking employment, such figures are not necessarily an accurate indicator of the number of people living in poverty. Economic trends can sometimes be linked with poverty in many developed countries. In the year s and s, for example, in the United States most people experienced a growth in their income due to economic boom and in Mauritius it was in mid s.
The average income of a family was doubled in that period even with inflation. However, there was a rise in the standard of living taking into consideration inflation, between the years s and the years s. Young people and less-educated ones are more affected when there are periods of economic recession as they find it difficult to get a job and support them. Poverty levels have also been increased with changes in labor markets in developed countries. In many developed countries the amount of poor has increased resulting from the inequalities in the distribution of resources.
For example, since the s, the 20 percent poorest of all U. During mostly of this period, due to an increase in the cost of living the middle and those at the bottom in the distribution line have worsened. There are different schools of thought about individual responsibility for poverty. Some believe that there is a proportion of the society who would stay in poverty no matter what due to the structure of society. While some other thinks that due to some dysfunctions of some social institutions such as the labour force, poverty would be pertaining.
According to this school of thought poverty id beyond the control of the people who are in it, but this problem can be remedied if proper policies are implemented. There are other people who think that the poor people tend to stay in poverty intentionally.
For example, there are people who choose to take drugs voluntarily leading them to stay in poverty these people can be blame for their situation.
Adding to that there are those who think that many people in developed countries tend to throw the blame on cycles of poverty, people who have the tendency to remain poor, or they depend on the generosity of the welfare institutions. Those who support this view includes some politicians, criticize the government to spend too much on the poverty though welfare programs. They argue that such welfare programs encourage people to stay in poverty in so as to benefit from payments continuously. They also argue that these welfare programs discourage marriage and work. In the American society and several other developed countries, being employed reduces their welfare supports and it is the same if a single parent gets married.
According A. Ahsan Ullah, Jayant K.
Sample Essay on Poverty
Routray, , a very important aspect of poverty in Bangladesh is unemployment or being under-employment. These people are dependent mostly on agriculture to survive in the rural areas and most of the time they are not owners of the land or own too little land to be able support their family. There are more than 20, NGOs have been performing in Bangladesh with two major aims of alleviating rural poverty and empowerment of the women.
However, the phenomena of poverty in Bangladesh are much higher as compared to the East Asian countries and the South Asian neighbours. Since, poverty is persistent in Bangladesh, the great majority of the poor do not own their land, and there is relatively few number of formal sector employment opportunities in rural areas, poverty alleviation strategies of NGOs have focused particularly on the possibilities for generating income as a solution. One of the major reasons for the increasing use of NGOs in countries like Bangladesh in the developmental activities is to find an alternative and better channel for development aid in the third world countries.
All the NGOs work with two basic missions, to alleviate poverty and empowering the poor, especially women Lovell, ; BRAC, by organizing them into small groups at the village level, arranging adult literacy programmes, providing necessary training and regular discussions on particular issues. Nearly, 60 million people of the population of Bangladesh have been brought under different health programmes by NGOs.
Essay on Living in a World With Extreme Poverty -- Threats To World Peac
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