The Cambridge History of Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
In Kate Fleet ed. Scholars following in Wittek's footsteps have moved away from his strong formulation [ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. The early Ottoman military activity described as ghaza is now thought to have been a much more fluid undertaking, sometimes referring to actions that were nothing more than raids, sometimes meaning a deliberate holy war, but most often combining a mixture of these elements.
The decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1566–1807
For these authors' works see Wittek, Paul The Rise of the Ottoman Empire. Les origines de l'empire ottoman. The main thrust of the critique was to underline certain actions of the early Ottomans that were now deemed contradictory to the spirit of holy war and to argue therefore that they cannot have been motivated by the ghazi ethos. The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. In , Pal Fodor, a Hungarian Turcologist, opened a fresh page in the debate with an important article in which he convincingly demonstrated that the ideas of ghaza and ghazi in the work of Ahmedi Wittek's most important source , were a literary device, whereby "Ahmedi presents the Ottoman rulers as ghazis in a manner that served well-definable political objectives.
In Elizabeth Zachariadou ed. The Ottoman Emirate — Rethymnon: Crete University Press. Almost all the traditional tales about Osman Ghazi are fictitious.
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The best thing a modern historian can do is to admit frankly that the earliest history of the Ottomans is a black hole. Any attempt to fill this hole will result simply in more fables. Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press. My intention here is not to provide more evidence of cooperation between Anatolian Muslim warriors and Byzantines, the prevalence of which is beyond doubt.
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The point is rather to show that the literature produced by or among the ghazis to glorify their deeds did not find it contradictory to present their ghazi protagonists in cooperation with Christians. It would thus seem inappropriate to conceptualize ghaza by assuming, like Wittek and his critics, that it was one and the same notion of "war for the faith" from its earliest emergence to the end of the empire.
Another way of looking at it would be to observe that the concept of ghaza underwent transformation in Ottoman thought. The Turkish Studies Association Journal. Heath Lowry's The Nature of the Early Ottoman State is the latest in a series of works that have appeared since the s, attempting to explain the origins of the Ottoman Empire and its subsequent rise to power.
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Basic Books. New York: Facts on File. Finkel, Caroline Imber, Colin Kafadar, Cemal University of California Press.
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