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Theyformaspecialformofcommunicationthatmothersusei nthesamewayacrosstheworld. Thesesoundsareveryimportantinhelp ingthelanguagedevelopmentininfants.

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DrElisePiazza,co-authoroft heresearch,saidbabytalkisalotmoreimportantthanwethought. Shesa id:"Itisnotsomethingtobeembarrassedaboutatall. Thebabieswereage dbetweensevenmonthsandoneyear. Themothersspoketotheirchildr enin10differentnativelanguages,includingEnglish,Spanish,Mandari n,RussianandHebrew. DrPiazzasaid:"Webasicallybroughtmothersint othelabandhadthemplaywithandreadtotheirownbabies,justlikethey wouldathome. Share what you discover with your partner s in the next lesson.

Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things? Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner s.

Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Give each other feedback on your articles.

Motherese in Interaction: At the Cross-Road of Emotion and Cognition? (A Systematic Review)

Read your letter to your partner s in your next lesson. Your partner s will answer your questions. Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity. E-mail this to a friend RSS Feed. Change topics and partners frequently.

Guess if a-h below are true T or false F. Princeton University has a Baby Lab. Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below. What is the name of the department at Princeton University? What did researchers call the baby talk language? What word that mothers use to their baby was in the article? What do the sounds mothers make help develop in babies? What did a doctor say we should not be when using baby talk?

How many mothers did the researchers record? How old were the babies? How many different languages did the women speak? What do mothers change when they speak to their babies? What did the researchers not look at? With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text: 24 7 10 read basic fathers over universal cute special helping something.

What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'baby'? What do you think of babies? How do mothers talk to their babies? What does 'motherese' sound like in your language? Selection of programmes for analysis was conducted blind; the segments analysed are included in the Supplementary Materials. For each clip the last frame of the title sequence was identified. Cohen's kappa was found to be 0. These played each clip for a second and then froze; the coder drew a rectangle around the face of the last character speaking or being addressed by a narrator. If no characters had spoken in that second then no speaking character was marked.

Segments in which the face of the speaking character was not visible e.

Cohen's kappa was calculated based on the probability that each pixel was within the speaking character frame; this was 0. This analyses the degree to which each feature predicts the location of the face relative to the location of a randomly sampled baseline location, frame by frame see SM. Our analysis is in four parts. In total, cuts were identified across the 14 excerpts. Calculations were also conducted to assess the relationship between shot length and proportion of screen occupied by the speaking character see Figure S1. Across all three categories negative correlations were observed, suggesting that longer cuts are associated with the speaking character occupying a smaller proportion of the screen.

First we analysed the mean values of each feature parameter luminance, colour intensity, feature congestion and flicker across the entire segment, irrespective of whether that content is located around the face of the speaking character or elsewhere in the frame Figures 4 a— 4 d.

A higher AUC indicates that that feature dimension is more predictive of the speaking character location — in other words, that that feature dimension is higher around the face of the speaking character than it is in the rest of the frame. In addition to these analyses we also performed a separate calculation addressing the same question: for each feature dimension, we calculated the mean feature values within the speaking character and within the whole frame and compared the proportion of the two.

This measure expresses how tightly concentrated the flicker is within a frame — in other words, whether the flicker tends to be spread out across the whole screen or to be concentrated within one particular area. The ROC method followed was identical to those used for the static feature dimensions; this calculation examines the degree to which flicker predicts the location of the speaking character face. We also performed a further calculation to examine the degree to which flicker predicts the location of the speaking character face.

This study used corpus analyses to examine the intuitions of TotTV producers. Both these findings were replicated using alternative analyses see Table S1 and Figure S3. We then performed two analyses that appear to suggest that TotTV features compositions in which movement is used more effectively to guide attention to the location of the speaking character within the frame. Both of these findings suggest that TotTV designers are using flicker to guide attention to the speaking character.

However, adult gaze studies have revealed that close shots can lead to greater disagreement between where viewers look on the screen: when a face is close up on the screen it ceases to be attended to as a whole and is instead attended as individual elements Smith, However, slower infant orienting combined with increased shot size may increase the time needed to encode the shot content.

This suggests that the differences we identify may be more attributable to differences between animation and live action than to between TotTV and ATV. To our knowledge surprisingly little research hitherto has quantitatively investigated how cartoons differ from live action; our results may give insight into why so many popular TotTV programmes are cartoons, in contrast to ATV in which the most popular programmes are almost exclusively live action.


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However, they also contain substantial limitations: first, as presented here they only apply to those frames which contain a speaking character, and second, they are limited to the visual modality. One goal for future work is to extend these analyses so that they also incorporate other aspects of semantically relevant vs. These techniques also have further potential applications. For example, parents and designers of childhood environments such as toys, playgrounds, and classrooms have intuitively structured the sensory environment to maximize interest, focus attention and aid child learning — but the efficacy of these sensory environments has not to our knowledge been quantified from the child's perspective.

The work presented in this paper is a first step toward this objective. Thanks to Amanda Worker for coding some of the analyses on which this article was based. Figure S1. Scatterplots showing the relationship between shot length and proportion of screen occupied by the speaking character face.

Individual datapoints represent individual shots. Figure S2. ROC curves. The AUC results have been shown in the main text. Infancy 4: Niwano K, Sugai K Intonation contour of Japanese maternal infant-directed speech and infant vocal response.

LINGUIST List L2 Pragmatics Crossover, "Motherese" Corpora

Amano S, Nakatani T, Kondo T Fundamental frequency of infants' and parents' utterances in longitudinal recordings. Snow Mother's speech to children learning language. Kitamura C, Thanavishuth C, Burnham D, Luksaneeyanawin S Universality and specificity in infant-directed speech: Pitch modifications as a function of infant age and sex in a tonal and non-tonal language. Feldman R Parent—infant synchrony and the construction of shared timing; physiological precursors, developmental outcomes, and risk conditions.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry Gleason JB Talking to children: some notes on feed-back. In: F. Talking to Children: Language Input and Acquisition. Braarud HC, Stormark KM Prosodic modification and vocal adjustments in mothers' speech during face-to-face interaction with their two- to four-month-old infants: A double video study. Soc Dev Infancy Shimura Y, Yamanoucho I Sound spectrographic studies on the relation between motherese and pleasure vocalization in early infancy. Acta Paediatr Jpn McRoberts GW, Best CT Accommodation in mean f0 during mother-infant and father-infant vocal interactions: a longitudinal case study.

Reissland N, Stephenson T Turn-taking in early vocal interaction: a comparison of premature and term infants' vocal interaction with their mothers. Child Care Health Dev Niwano K, Sugai K Maternal accommodation in infant-directed speech during mother's and twin-infants' vocal interactions. Psychol Rep Reissland N, Shepherd J, Cowie L The melody of surprise: maternal surprise vocalizations during play with her infant.

Lederberg AR Interaction between deaf preschoolers and unfamiliar hearing adults. Fidler DJ Parental vocalizations and perceived immaturity in down syndrome.