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Another factor that the majority of researchers pointed out was that marital conflict had serious negative effects that were being underestimated as the effects of divorce were overestimated.

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A high degree of marital conflict undermines the parent-child relationship and impairs effective discipline , thereby indirectly affecting child development. When marital conflict escalates to violence between parents, the negative impact on children is pervasive and persistent. An author writes that although divorce can be devastating to some children, others do remarkably well in its aftermath and even seem to learn from it how to do better than their parents did. Depression research papers discuss the psychological state of low mood that can affect a person's thoughts and behaviors.

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According to the DSM-5, for diagnosing people with agoraphobia, there is a need of having symptoms of extreme fear in public places which are perceived as too open, dangerous, and crowded mostly. Panic attack refers to the repetitive state of anxiety and sudden panic attacks with the fear of outcomes of this state, such as the fear of death, being mad, or losing control. Panic disorder is the disorder which brings a serious loss of functionality and the state of distress for the person.

2. Ability to Handle Conflict

Specific phobia is characterized by an intense and persistent fear of a particular situation or object. For people with specific phobia, an intense anxiety develops by the exposure to the particular object or situation causing the fear. People with specific phobia have the fear of getting harmed. It was explained as a kind of anxiety that was developed as a result of the fear of getting insulted by others and the feeling of shame in social conditions which cause severe anxiety. According to DSM-5, Social Anxiety Disorder indicates a broader scope of the condition as covering variety of social conditions.

The person with the Social Anxiety Disorder feels stressed in cases of performing a social performance, which can bring about a panic attack. People with the Social Anxiety Disorder have distress in public speeches, eating or writing in the presence of other people and they avoid such situations. Separation Anxiety Disorder is referred as an excessive statement of anxiety or feeling of fear for separation from attachment figure that is developmentally inappropriate.

Duration of the disorder to meet diagnosis for the Separation Anxiety Disorder criteria is at least 6 months in adults and at least 1 month in children.

Divorce and the Effects on Children Research Papers

The important point is that children who suffer from selective mutism usually do not have any kind of language deficits. The state of anxiety can be experienced in various severities from a mild restlessness and tension up to the degree of panic. It can be listed from psychological range to physical range specified as worry, tension, wince, feeling of loneliness, insecurity, fear, panic, astonishment, nervousness, unclear thinking, dry mouth, headache, dizziness, vomiting, weakness, lack of appetite, lower blood pressure or high blood pressure, muscle rigidity, stomach problems, hyperventilation, sweating, shaking, and insomnia.

Moreover, anxiety can show behavioral indications varying from person to person [ 24 ]. Identifying the causes of anxiety disorder still has an unclear answer. In early theories, anxiety is explained as a defense strategy mechanism against the unconscious conflict. It is explained as a kind of adaptive behavior that is needed for person with internal conflicts. We cannot ignore biological innate tendency to react on the new situation with fear and anxiety that many children perform in early childhood. Behavior learning theories claim that children learn anxiety feeling and behavior from their parents or important people.

Parents with specific or generalized anxiety disorder usually teach children to worry all the time or to be scared of specific objects or situations. A new research has proved that anxiety is linked with specific neurobiological and hormonal changes and processes in the body. Among other family factors, parenting styles, such as rigid-authoritative or oppositely permissive parenting, can cause fear and nervousness in children.

Families with many marital problems that might result in divorce are weighed with stress as well as disturbed family atmosphere. Growing up in such an atmosphere, living with parents who worry or fight most of the time, has effected child psychological development [ 26 , 27 ]. Descriptive research method was applied in order to determine the relationship between parental divorce as independent variable and anxiety as dependent variable. A quantitative method was applied to analyze the data. The study had following aims: to explore the differences in anxiety levels among adolescents from divorced and intact families; to explore the level of anxiety of adolescents from divorced and intact families with respect to their genders.

Based on research questions the following hypotheses are developed: H 1 : There is statistically significant difference in level of anxiety between adolescents from divorced and intact families. H 2 : There is no statistically significant difference in anxiety level among adolescents from divorced and intact families in regards to gender. The sample consists of adolescents from five different high schools from Istanbul, Turkey. The participants of the study were chosen with systematic random sampling technique. Principals from participating schools allowed the research.

The study was conducted with students. However, the analysis was done with participants because some students did not give the data about whether or not they live in divorced families. Some participants did not respond to all questions from Back Anxiety Scale, therefore, all participants with incomplete data are excluded from the research.

An additional selection of participants of the study in regards to parental divorce as independent variable was not done, however we come to an equal number of adolescents from divorced and intact families. Participants were provided with the information sheet and informed consent before the study. The questionnaires were distributed to the participants. The participants were asked to answer the questions. For the assessment of anxiety, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was applied with its Turkish adaptation.

The instructions were given to the participants by explaining that they should select the closest statement in the answer box. The research was conducted in — academic year. Both female and male adolescents were included in the research. A total of 73 female and 89 male participants participated in the study. A demographic questionnaire was created and one data collection instruments were applied for the study. For assessment of anxiety level of participants Beck Anxiety Inventory was used.

The total score has a minimum of 0 and maximum of Results interpretation provides us with a possibility to discriminate participants as anxious and non-anxious group.

Divorce and Its Effect On Children Essay

Among anxious group the results from Back Anxiety Inventory discriminate participants with low anxiety, moderate anxiety and high anxiety. The adaptation of the scale in Turkish version is done by Ulusoy. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were employed in this study for summarizing the statistical characteristics of adolescents from divorced and intact families. Independent samples t-test was applied for investigating the difference between adolescents from divorced and intact families in their anxiety levels. Moreover, two-way ANOVA was applied to examine the difference between male and female adolescents from divorced and intact families in their anxiety levels.

In this part of the study, descriptions of the findings are presented. Firstly, a description of the characteristics and background of the participants of the study were illustrated.

The Effects of Divorce on Children :: essays research papers

The collected data were analyzed by applying frequencies, descriptive statistics, correlations, independent samples t-test, and two-way ANOVA. Research questions and hypotheses are followed for the representation of the results and interpretations of the results one by one. The results are illustrated with tables. The gender, chronological age, and information about parental divorce are in the focus of our study. Regarding the gender of participants, Majority of participants are age 17 About Approximately 3.

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Although statistical data indicate that more than half of participants in the study have low level of anxiety, the fact that The data present cumulative results for all participants in the study, which includes adolescents who live in divorced and intact families. Independent samples t-test result on the Beck Anxiety Inventory scores of adolescents from divorced and intact families. One of the aims of our study was to investigate gender differences in anxiety level of our participants.

Effects Of Divorce On Children And Divorce

In addition, we wanted to get an answer on the question if young boys and girls react differently on divorce in the family in regard to anxiety level. Two-way ANOVA result on the Beck anxiety inventory scores of adolescents from divorced and intact families with respect to gender.

The mutual developmental challenges and identity crises in adolescence period might be connected to the development of symptoms of anxiety in general. The results we got by measuring the anxiety level in adolescents in our study indicated present tendencies of anxiety level in adolescents. Following the results of frequencies for Beck Anxiety Inventory scale, we can see that the majority of our participants have low level of anxiety. However, our study indicated that Results explored the issue of gender in regard to anxiety as dependent variable and divorce as independent variable. Data proved that adolescents from divorced families and intact families do not vary in their anxiety level in relation to gender in our sample.

According to Ref. Young girls react more emotionally, such as early sexual relations, lack of self-confidence, while young boys show aggressive and delinquent behaviors more frequently. Anxiety can be closely related to the mentioned behaviors in boys and girls.